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The European Patent Office recently turned down an application for a patent that described a food container. This was not due to the invention’s usefulness but because artificial intelligence created it.
That said, being creative is clearly one of the most remarkable human traits. Without it, there would be no poetry, no internet and no space travel. But could AI ever match or even surpass us? Let’s have a look at the research.
"Problem finding is hard for machines, as problems are often out of the boundaries of the data pool that machines innovate upon."
Creativity and innovation
From a theoretical perspective, creativity and innovation is a process of search and combination. We start from one piece of knowledge and connect it with another piece of knowledge into something new and useful. In principle, this is also something machines can do — in fact, they excel at storing, processing and making connections within data.
Machines come up with innovations by using generative methods. But how does this work exactly?
There are different approaches, but let’s focus on generative adversarial networks. As an example, consider a machine that is supposed to create a new picture of a person. Generative adversarial networks tackle this creation task by combining two subtasks.
The first part is the generator, which produces new images starting from a random distribution of pixels. The second part is the discriminator, which tells the generator how close it came to actually producing a real-looking picture.
How does the discriminator know what a human looks like? Well, you feed it many examples of pictures of a real person before you start the task. Based on the feedback of the discriminator, the generator improves its algorithm and suggests a new picture.
This process goes on and on until the discriminator decides the pictures look close enough to the picture examples it has learned. These generated pictures come extremely close to real people.
"Creativity isn’t just about novelty, it is also about usefulness. While machines are clearly able to create something incrementally new, this does not mean these creations are useful."
But even if machines can create innovations from data, this does not mean they are likely to steal all the spark of human creativity any time soon.
Innovation is a problem-solving process — for innovation to happen, you must combine problems with solutions. Humans can go either direction — they start with a problem and solve it, or they take a solution and try to find new problems for it.
An example for the latter type of innovation is the Post-it note. An engineer developed an adhesive that was much too weak and sitting on his desk. Only later a colleague realized that this solution could help prevent his notes falling out of his scores during choir practice.
Using data as an input and code as explicit problem formulation, machines can also provide solutions to problems. Problem finding, however, is hard for machines, as problems are often out of the boundaries of the data pool that machines innovate upon.
What’s more, innovation often comes from unknown needs. Think of the Walkman.
Even if no consumer ever uttered the wish to listen to music while walking, this innovation was a huge success. As such, latent needs are hard to formulate and make explicit; they are also unlikely to find their way into the data pool machines need for innovation.
"Even if machines cannot replace humans in the creative domain, they are great help to complement human creativity."
A lifetime of experiences
Humans and machines also have different raw material they use as input for innovation. Where humans draw on a lifetime of broad experiences to create ideas, machines are largely restricted to the data we feed them.
Machines can quickly generate countless incremental innovations in forms of new versions based on the input data. Breakthrough innovation, however, is less likely to come from machines attempting to connect unrelated fields of information. Think of the invention of the snowboard, which connects the worlds of skiing and surfing.
Also, creativity isn’t just about novelty, it is also about usefulness. While machines are clearly able to create something incrementally new, this does not mean these creations are useful.
Usefulness is defined in the eye of those potentially using innovations, which is difficult for machines to judge. Humans, however, can empathize with other humans and understand their needs better.
Complementing human creativity
Finally, consumers could frown upon machine-generated creative ideas.
As of now, many aspects of creativity remain uncontested terrain for machines and AI. However, there are disclaimers.
Even if machines cannot replace humans in the creative domain, they are great help to complement human creativity. For example, we can ask new questions or identify new problems that we solve in combination with machine learning.
In addition, our analysis is based on the fact that machines mostly innovate on narrow datasets. AI could become much more creative if it could combine big, rich and otherwise disconnected data.
Also, machines may get better at creativity when they get better at the kind of broad intelligence humans possess — something we call “general intelligence.” And this might not be too far in the future — some experts assess there is a 50-percent chance machines reach human-level intelligence within the next 50 years.
Republished with permission, this article first appeared on The Conversation.
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